Gather and measure all the spices.
Dry roast the coriander seeds, cumin seeds, fennel seeds, peppercorns, cloves and cardamom pods in a wide pan stirring often until their aroma is released.
If using saffron strands, add them to the warm roasted spices. This will release the saffron gently into the spices.
Allow the spices to cool.
* Remove and keep the seeds from the cardamom pods after roasting and discard the pods before grinding.
Transfer to a food processor or mortar and pestle. Add the remaining ingredients and blend or grind to a fine powder.
Transfer to a dry, sterilised glass jar and seal tightly.